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For passing in variables the numbers 1-8 can be used (&1, &2,...,&8) to pass the values after the command into the SQLPLUS session. What SQLPlus command is used to format output from a select This is best done with the COLUMN command. You want to group the following set of select returns, what can you group on Max(sum_of_cost), min(sum_of_cost), count(item_no), item_no The only column that can be grouped on is the "item_no" column, the rest have aggregate functions associated with them. What special Oracle feature allows you to specify how the cost based system treats a SQL statement The COST based system allows the use of HINTs to control the optimizer path selection.
The benefit of taking a cold backup is that it is typically easier to administer the backup and recovery process.They can be used in exception handling to report, or, store in an error log table, the error that occurred in the code. Another possible method is to just use the SHOW ERROR command, but this only shows errors. Once the trace file is generated you run the tkprof tool against the trace file and then look at the output from the tkprof tool. The major sort are parameter is the SORT_AREA_SIZe parameter. You can increase copy latches via the initialization parameter LOG_SIMULTANEOUS_COPIES to twice the number of CPUs on your system. Where can you get a list of all initialization parameters for your instance? This is bad since it makes tracking which table the constraint belongs to or what the constraint does harder. What happens if a tablespace clause is left off of a primary key constraint clause This results in the index that is automatically generated being placed in then users default tablespace. This can be prevented or mitigated by breaking the transaction into a set of smaller transactions or increasing the size of the rollback segments and their extents. How can you tell if a database object is invalid By checking the status column of the DBA_, ALL_ or USER_OBJECTS views, depending upon whether you own or only have permission on the view or are using a DBA account. A user is getting an ORA-00942 error yet you know you have granted them permission on the table, what else should you check You need to check that the user has specified the full name of the object (select empid from scott.emp; instead of select empid from emp;) or has a synonym that balls to the object (create synonym emp for scott.emp;) 14.These are especially useful for the WHEN OTHERS exception. How can you find within a PL/SQL block, if a cursor is open? The DBMS_OUTPUT package can be used to show intermediate results from loops and the status of variables as the procedure is executed. This can also be used to generate explain plan output. When looking at v$sysstat you see that sorts (disk) is high. How about an indication if they are default settings or have been changed You can look in the file for an indication of manually set parameters. Since this will usually be the same tablespace as the table is being created in, this can cause serious performance problems. What is the proper method for disabling and re-enabling a primary key constraint You use the ALTER TABLE command for both. A developer is trying to create a view and the database won? He has the "DEVELOPER" role which has the "CREATE VIEW" system privilege and SELECT grants on the tables he is using, what is the problem You need to verify the developer has direct grants on all tables used in the view. t create a stored object with grants given through views. If you have an example table, what is the best way to get sizing data for the production table implementation The best way is to analyze the table and then use the data provided in the DBA_TABLES view to get the average row length and other pertinent data for the calculation.In Oracle 8 they will be able to be of the %ROWTYPE designation, or RECORD. It must come first in a PL/SQL stand alone file if it is used. In what order should a open/fetch/loop set of commands in a PL/SQL block be implemented if you use the %NOTFOUND cursor variable in the exit when statement? Expected answer: OPEN then FETCH then LOOP followed by the exit when. Poor data dictionary or library cache hit ratios, getting error ORA-04031.If not specified in this order will result in the final return being done twice because of the way the %NOTFOUND is handled by PL/SQL. What are SQLCODE and SQLERRM and why are they important for PL/SQL developers? Another indication is steadily decreasing performance with all other tuning parameters the same. What is the general guideline for sizing db_block_size and db_multi_block_read for an application that does many full table scans? The two should have a product equal to 64 or a multiple of 64. What is the fastest query method for a table Fetch by rowid 7. What initialization parameter should be turned on to get full TKPROF output?Expected answer: SQLCODE returns the value of the error number for the last error encountered. The tkprof tool is a tuning tool used to determine cpu and execution times for SQL statements.
The SQLERRM returns the actual error message for the last error encountered. Expected Answer: There are 12 types of triggers in PL/SQL that consist of combinations of the BEFORE, AFTER, ROW, TABLE, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and ALL key words: BEFORE ALL ROW INSERT AFTER ALL ROW INSERT BEFORE INSERT AFTER INSERT etc. You use it by first setting timed_statistics to true in the initialization file and then turning on tracing for either the entire database via the sql_trace parameter or for the session using the ALTER SESSION command. This indicates you need to tune the sort area parameters in the initialization files. What parameters control copy latches When you get excessive contention for the copy latches as shown by the "redo copy" latch hit ratio. What happens if the constraint name is left out of a constraint clause The Oracle system will use the default name of SYS_Cxxxx where xxxx is a system generated number. How can this be prevented or mitigated This is caused by large or long running transactions that have either wrapped onto their own rollback space or have had another transaction write on part of their rollback space.
It can usually be solved by increasing the undo retention or increasing the size of rollbacks. There are many which developers should be aware of such as DBMS_SQL, DBMS_PIPE, DBMS_TRANSACTION, DBMS_LOCK, DBMS_ALERT, DBMS_OUTPUT, DBMS_JOB, DBMS_UTILITY, DBMS_DDL, UTL_FILE.
You should also look at the logic involved in the application getting the error message. If they can mention a few of these and describe how they used them, even better.
If you do a comparison between pairs of readings based on some arbitrary time span, this is the instantaneous ratio for that time span. Another if you are on UNIX is to do a "ps -ef|grep oracle|wc -l?
Generally speaking an instantaneous reading gives more valuable data since it will tell you what your instance is doing for the time it was generated over. command, but this only works against a single instance installation. A user selects from a sequence and gets back two values, his select is: SELECT pk_seq.nextval FROM dual; What is the problem Somehow two values have been inserted into the dual table.
As objects grow they take chunks of additional storage that are composed of contiguous data blocks.