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Ground stone mortars, bowls, and cup holes first appeared in the Upper Paleolithic (from 40000 y ago to 12000 y ago) (29), whereas the regular exploitation of cereal grains by any worldwide hunter-gatherer group arose with the emergence of the Natufian culture in the Levant ≈13000 BP (30).
In the United States, chronic illnesses and health problems either wholly or partially attributable to diet represent by far the most serious threat to public health.
Sixty-five percent of adults aged ≥20 y in the United States are either overweight or obese (13), and the estimated number of deaths ascribable to obesity is 280184 per year (14).
More than 64 million Americans have one or more types of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which represents the leading cause of mortality (38.5% of all deaths) in the United States (15).
In particular, food staples and food-processing procedures introduced during the Neolithic and Industrial Periods have fundamentally altered 7 crucial nutritional characteristics of ancestral hominin diets: Evolution acting through natural selection represents an ongoing interaction between a species’ genome and its environment over the course of multiple generations.
Genetic traits may be positively or negatively selected relative to their concordance or discordance with environmental selective pressures (1).
However, after weaning, the consumption of milk and milk products of other mammals would have been nearly impossible before the domestication of livestock because of the inherent difficulties in capturing and milking wild mammals.
Although sheep were domesticated by ≈11000 before present (BP) (25) and goats and cows by ≈10000 BP (26,27), early direct chemical evidence for dairying dates to 6100 to 5500 BP from residues of dairy fats found on pottery in Britain (28).Similar to all species, contemporary humans are genetically adapted to the environment of their ancestors—that is, to the environment that their ancestors survived in and that consequently conditioned their genetic makeup (1–3).There is growing awareness that the profound environmental changes (eg, in diet and other lifestyle conditions) that began with the introduction of agriculture and animal husbandry ≈10000 y ago occurred too recently on an evolutionary time scale for the human genome to adapt (2–5).Initially, when permanent environmental changes occur in a population, individuals bearing the previous average status quo genome experience evolutionary discordance (2,3).In the affected genotype, this evolutionary discordance manifests itself phenotypically as disease, increased morbidity and mortality, and reduced reproductive success (1–3).Osteoporotic hip fractures are associated with a 20% excess mortality in the year after fracture (17).