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There are also several Malay trade and creole languages which are based on a lingua franca derived from Classical Malay, as well as Macassar Malay, which appears to be a mixed language.
There are many cognates found in the languages' words for kinship, health, body parts and common animals. Within Austronesian, Malay is part of a cluster of numerous closely related forms of speech known as the Malayan languages, which were spread across Malaya and the Indonesian archipelago by Malay traders from Sumatra.Standard Malay, also called Court Malay, was the literary standard of the pre-colonial Malacca and Johor Sultanates, and so the language is sometimes called Malacca, Johor, or Riau Malay (or various combinations of those names) to distinguish it from the various other Malayan languages.According to Ethnologue 16, several of the Malayan varieties they currently list as separate languages, including the varieties of Peninsular Malay, are so closely related to standard Malay that they may prove to be dialects.Batenburg on November 29, 1920 at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, on the banks of the Tatang, a tributary of the Musi River.It is a small stone of 45 by 80 centimetres (18 by 31 in).During this period, the Malay language developed rapidly under the influence of Islamic literature.
The development changed the nature of the language with massive infusion of Arabic, Tamil and Sanskrit vocabularies, called Classical Malay.However, there is no connection between Malaccan Malay as used on Riau and the Riau vernacular.One of the oldest surviving letters written in Malay is a letter from Sultan Abu Hayat of Ternate, Maluku Islands in present-day Indonesia, dated around 1521–1522.Sanskrit loanwords can be found in Old Malay vocabulary.The earliest known stone inscription in the Old Malay language was found in Sumatra, written in the Pallava variety of the Grantha alphabet and dates back to 7th century – known as the Kedukan Bukit inscription, it was discovered by the Dutchman M.There is disagreement as to which varieties of speech popularly called "Malay" should be considered dialects of this language, and which should be classified as distinct Malay languages.