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Nay, how could we fully explain the social environment itself without VOL I c i S THE HISTORY OF HUMAN MARRr AGE taking into account tli« mental characteristics of the human species ? But several of the larger serpents have a curious fashion of lajing them in a heap, and then coiling themselves aroimd them in a great hollow cone.* And female crocodiles, as also certain aquatic snakes of Cocliin China, observed by Dr. The twg J birds help each other to build the nest, the male generally bringing the materials and the female doing the work. The sum varies with the ability of her father and her husband to pay, and in default of payment, the bekchi will exercise the jus primae noctis." ^ We shall now consider how the facts stated may be ex- plained. Le mouchoir, ttint du sang de la jcunc victimc, est pr&enti aux parents, qui la ffe Ucitont dc sa chastct^ ct t[ the h Ic Donnell Ranges belonging to tlie Arunta Tribe.' in Report OH the Work of the Horn Scitnlijic Exptdition to Centrai Auttialia, iv.
Public domain books are our gateways lo the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.
Marks, notations and other niaiginalia present in the original volume will appeal' in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from Ihe publisher to a library and finally lo you.
Usage guidelines Google is proud to partner with librai'ies to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. — Mntilations aud other transformations of the sexual ornns □igu'ls, ibid.
Public domain books belong to the public and we Lue merely Iheir custodians. — The sexnal organs subject to mntilations or other practices, the parpose of which may have been to make the person more attractive to the opposite sex, PP' 539-561— Circumcision, pp, 561-564. — Certain attitudes exhibited by women among naxed tribes, p. — The connection between covering and the feeling of shame, pp. — The tendency to look for superstitious origins of savage customs, p.
Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring thai what you are doing is legal. Under religious beliefs and practices there are animism, totemism, ancestor-worship, polytheism, mono- theism. And even in such cases it may often be diflficult or impossible to decide with certainty whether similar customs have a common origin or not. Graebner himself admits that it is possible, although not proved, that identical customs grow up independently among peoples in different parts of the world ; if so. INTRODUCTION have been led quite independently to much the same general position as that of the Gennan school by the results of my ovm work in Oceania."^ If customs and institutions and ideas could speak, they might also perhaps be justilied in defending themselves against the suspicion of being mere borrowings. Gracbncr would say, as he has indeed said in a general way, that in cases of parallelism we must not apply European evidence to savages, who almost entirely lack " the conscious endeavour after further development." ' It seems as though he regarded the customs of savages as almost unchangeable, unless subject to influences from without. * Speacc T and GUIen, Naliv* Tribtt 0/ Ctntrat Austnlia, p. THE HISTORY OF HUMAN MARRIAGE 1 And if this is the case, it is only natural that the changes often should lead to similar results in different instances.
Do not assume Ihat just because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries. Under institutions occiu*, for instance, marriage, clanship, chieftainship, slaver^' ; and under each heat Ung there are sub-headings, hke marriage by consideration, monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, group-marriage. it is obviously also possible that identical i customs grow up independently among peoples who are of the same stock or have come into contact with one another. But there is sufficient proof that they are not so. For the possibilities in cultural development are always limited, and often limited in a very high degree. PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION I NEED scarcely say how fully I appreciate the honour of being introduced to English readers by Mr. I am also greatly obliged for his kindness in reading the proofs, and in giving me the benefit of his advice with regard to various peirts of the subject. But I purpose, after my return to Europe, to issue an Appendix, in which the book will be brought more up to date and some criticism will be replied to. 13 so, — The complaint that the comparative method di^taches the cultural phenomenon from the organic whole of which it forms a part and thereby easily represents it in a wrong light, pp. — The study of a cultural phenomenon as it is distributed among different races and the study of it which is restricted to a particular ethnic group complement each other, p. — The homogeneous elements ol the human mind underrated and the homogeneity of the group-mind overrated by the school of Durkheim, pp. — An error of method prevalent among the evolutionary school, p. — The only condition on which the universal prevalence of a social phenomenon in the past may be assumed, p. and find it truly alarming to hear from one who may almost be regarded as the leader of a new school in sociology in this country that social phenomena should be referred to social antecedents before any attempt is made to examine the psychological processes under ITng them. • Se« my Marriage Crr«ntcm4S in Morocco; Certmaniet and Btl Uft connecud a-il* Asricv Uu Tt. the comparative treatment, which in the first place bears out general resemblances, often helps the specialist to explain facts which he could hardly understand in full if his know- ledge were restricted to a limited area. It is difficult for me to acknowledge sufficiently my obligations to Mr. It is strange that this extraordinary faith in sociological explanations should be coupled with an equally extreme dis- trust in our capacity of learning the motives by which social conduct is determined. But the mental facts that kad to the customs of peoples are not ol a very subtle ciiaractcr. one meets only with un- certainty and vagueness unless, as is most frequently the case, the people are wholly satisfied with the position that they are acting as their fathers have done before them."* So far as my own experience goes, this is tnie of some cases but not of others, in which most valuable information has been obtained from 4hc natives themselves.* Their ex- planations are not always alike, and the reason for this is probably that the real origin of the rite has been partly or wholly forgotten and a new interpretation substituted for the idea from which it rose. ec Uu H Datet of the Solar Year, and (** Wtai Mer in Mvrouo (P/itrsigl af Finska Vtlenshaps- Sociele Utu Forlia Hdlinsar. It is easy to criticise the comparative method in the point we are now con- sidering, but it is impossible for any modem student of human civilisation to ignore its results. * Noel, ' Ilede Maila^ascar.'in BMttin d* la Soci M i* G4ograpkie, ser, ii. James Sime for his assistance in preparing this book for the press. The mental constitution of men is, in spite of all racial and individual differences, essentially similar everywhere, Tliis is implied in tlio fact that they are members of the human species and is confirmed by their external behaviour. They are general instincts, sentiments, or emotions, or particular ideas, which, if still prevailing, ought to be accessible to a penetrating inquir'. Rivers maintains that the appa- rently hopeless task of trying to discover why people perform rites and ceremonies is partly due to the abstract nature of such inquiries : " directly one approaches the underlying meaning of rite or custom . This, however, should not make the field-ethnedogist less eager to find out the present meaning attached to the facts he records ; for whether or no it be the original meaning, it gives us in any case some insight into the ideas of existing people, and these are by themselves important subjects of inquiry. The writings of Professor Durkheim and his disciples are thoroughly per^-aded by the teachings of the very school whose method they have so severely criticised. The work, as originally written, naturally contained a good many foreign modes of expres- Hon, Mr. British Vice-Consul at Helsingfors, who most kindly aided me in writing the first part of the book in a tongue which is not my own. It is true that the more different people are from ourselves, and the le^s we know them, the more difficult it is for us to know the motives for thdr actions ; and to understand them in every detail is beyond Rivers, ia Sccioiog Ual Retiuw. But the direct inquiry into motives is not the only way in which they may be a. Does not this show that there must be exa^eration in their criticism ? THE ORIGIN OF MARRIAGE 29 P I ^ In the lowest classes of the Vertebrata parental care is likewise almost unheard of. Refrain fivm aiftomated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system; If you are conducting research on machine translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a laige amount of text is helpful, please contact us. — Peoples among whom only the to at tne age of puberty, p. Weapons, for example, are classed under spear, club, sling, bow and arrow, and so forth.