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Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring thai what you are doing is legal. Under religious beliefs and practices there are animism, totemism, ancestor-worship, polytheism, mono- theism. And even in such cases it may often be diflficult or impossible to decide with certainty whether similar customs have a common origin or not. Graebner himself admits that it is possible, although not proved, that identical customs grow up independently among peoples in different parts of the world ; if so. INTRODUCTION have been led quite independently to much the same general position as that of the Gennan school by the results of my ovm work in Oceania."^ If customs and institutions and ideas could speak, they might also perhaps be justilied in defending themselves against the suspicion of being mere borrowings. Gracbncr would say, as he has indeed said in a general way, that in cases of parallelism we must not apply European evidence to savages, who almost entirely lack " the conscious endeavour after further development." ' It seems as though he regarded the customs of savages as almost unchangeable, unless subject to influences from without. * Speacc T and GUIen, Naliv* Tribtt 0/ Ctntrat Austnlia, p. THE HISTORY OF HUMAN MARRIAGE 1 And if this is the case, it is only natural that the changes often should lead to similar results in different instances. Do not assume Ihat just because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries. Under institutions occiu*, for instance, marriage, clanship, chieftainship, slaver^' ; and under each heat Ung there are sub-headings, hke marriage by consideration, monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, group-marriage. it is obviously also possible that identical i customs grow up independently among peoples who are of the same stock or have come into contact with one another. But there is sufficient proof that they are not so. For the possibilities in cultural development are always limited, and often limited in a very high degree.

Nay, how could we fully explain the social environment itself without VOL I c i S THE HISTORY OF HUMAN MARRr AGE taking into account tli« mental characteristics of the human species ? But several of the larger serpents have a curious fashion of lajing them in a heap, and then coiling themselves aroimd them in a great hollow cone.* And female crocodiles, as also certain aquatic snakes of Cocliin China, observed by Dr. The twg J birds help each other to build the nest, the male generally bringing the materials and the female doing the work. The sum varies with the ability of her father and her husband to pay, and in default of payment, the bekchi will exercise the jus primae noctis." ^ We shall now consider how the facts stated may be ex- plained. Le mouchoir, ttint du sang de la jcunc victimc, est pr&enti aux parents, qui la ffe Ucitont dc sa chastct^ ct t[ the h Ic Donnell Ranges belonging to tlie Arunta Tribe.' in Report OH the Work of the Horn Scitnlijic Exptdition to Centrai Auttialia, iv. Public domain books are our gateways lo the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. Marks, notations and other niaiginalia present in the original volume will appeal' in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from Ihe publisher to a library and finally lo you. Usage guidelines Google is proud to partner with librai'ies to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. — Mntilations aud other transformations of the sexual ornns □igu'ls, ibid. Public domain books belong to the public and we Lue merely Iheir custodians. — The sexnal organs subject to mntilations or other practices, the parpose of which may have been to make the person more attractive to the opposite sex, PP' 539-561— Circumcision, pp, 561-564. — Certain attitudes exhibited by women among naxed tribes, p. — The connection between covering and the feeling of shame, pp. — The tendency to look for superstitious origins of savage customs, p. Many new acts have been incorporated, and some old ones have been imitted. fi CBtory term known to rr Aer clircclly totheactof beg^ttlngor to the fa-By age, pp. - — The toirelation between the pr Meoce of ■ term of relationitup and ipctinl uitiinl relntio Ri or fanctioru aaaodated with it by no mcaiu complete, pp, 137-IJ9. rtiver«' cooduiion that certaiadtt M&catoiy terras indicate the earlier existence of cr OM-eiraiin marriage, pp. — A common nomenclature for pvnons repte^enlin^ two nr more rektioa tho child to itd father, p. — The males fighting for females among the lower animals, p. In answer to this question Tylor made the following general statement : — " Sometimes it may be ascribed to the hke working of men's minds under hke conditions, and sometimes it is a proof of blood relationship or of intercourse, direct or indirect, between the races among whom it is foimd."' Sir James G. Tylor justly spoke of " the constant difficulty in deciding whether any particular development is due to independent invention, or to transmission from some other people to those among whom it is found " ; ' and this difhculty has certainly not been removed by later investigations. Graebncr lays down two main criteria which, he thinks, enable us to trace similar culture-phenomena to a common source : first, the criterion of form, as he calls it, that is, correspondence of qualities not inlierent to the nature of the object, and secondly, that of ■ Riven, British Astociatiati for tht AAiancemtnt of St M*tc«. It is not a sufficient explanation of a custom to say that it has teen derived from ancestors or borrowed ftom neighbours.

Various aspects of marriage, which were previously leak with very inadequately or hardly touched upon, have een discussed at length. — Conclusion* drnwa from tha clunilicatory lcmi« of ir Utionnliip with refprencn to («(lter in&rri Afe cmioma ot telaliona between the lex M, pp. — Terma of re- littonahip borrowed Uam the chl Mron'i lipa, pp. ]4&-i4g ^By »oual rvlattoni, probably (torn the beginning tombined with vague iileats o J co DMn- guinity,* pp. — The MKial factor alto pmumablv felt in the duiinctlon between persons of diflrrent aex and ol dl Hermt a^e, PI' i5)-J55 — Tite inhu«Rc« of th« habit of livtag together, p. — The impo Ttancp of the aocia J factor evident in terms used in addro MJag slr;infeni. — To infer the earlier exiiteace of certain tociftl condilton* from ccnain term* of rclationahip canifli Boatc At Mbeaokhiiu more than af-uew. Frazer likewise speaks of " the essential similarity in the working of the less developed human mind among all races, which corresponds to the essential similarity in their bodily Irame revealed by comparative anatomy. ■ liem, Reuarches into the Early History of Manhin J, p. This only raises the question how it originated among those who first practised it ; for a custom must have had a be- ginning. 107 : " So bleibt denn als ersles und Gfundproblem dcr Ethnologic wis der ganien Knltnrgesduchte die Herauurbeitung der Kulturbo Elehungon." INTRODUCTION 1 themselves. 8 THE HISTORY OF HUMAN MARRIAGE the range of future confirmation.

Only some of the changes can be here briefly indicated. And from these facts we are justified in drawing the conclusion that human sacrifice is, largely at least, a method of life-insurance, based upon the idea of substitu- tion ; whilst the famine-sacrifice and the principle uoder- l Tng it lead to the supposition that the frequent custom of securing good crops by means of such a sacrifice, even when there is no famine, may also be traced to the same principle, especially as there are obwous links between this custom and the actual famine-sacrifice.' Very fiequently the know- ledge of the cause of a certain custom found among one people fadps us to understand the meaning of the same, or more or less similar, customs atnong other peoples. There is no more depressing and apparently hopeless task than that of trying to discover why people perform rites and ceremonies and conform to the social customs of their community." Moreover, it has been gradually recognised " that social conduct is not directed by intellectual motives, but, predominantly, often it would seem exclusively, by sentiments or even iastincts," and "no mental states are more difficult to introspect than emotions and sentiments, to say nothing of instincts." ■ ' Rivers, " Survival in Sociology.' in Sociotogicai Review, vi. * Idem, 'Sociology and ftjrcholoey,' in Sociological Review, ix. INTRODUCTION For the present, then, we should, on this principle, care- fully refrain from assuming, for example, that courtst^p and marriage have anything to do with the sexual instinct, that the retaliation of adultery springs from jealousy and revenge,' that the secrecy observed in the performance of the sexual function is connected with sexual modesty. i6 THE HISTORY OF HUMAN MARRIAGE consummation of the marriage (on account of the fragility of their shells), somtitimes to facilitate delivery ; and it is quite possible that all these various interpretations represent original motives or parts of a mixed motive. This case may be considered t-s, arc largely due to the incompleteness of their sources. To this man he has to pay one fowl, one bowl of flour, and a small bowl of beer, and after the ^1 has slept with this man, she is supposed to have no future intercourse with him."* Among the tribes near Fort Johnston in British Central Africa " a virgin on her marriage is ' broken ' by a friend of the bridegroom before the latter cohabits i-/ith her.

A new introductory chapter on method, largely dealing with problems of recent growth, has taken the place of the old one. Joseph Jacobs for the readiness with which he has placed at my disposal some results of his own researches ; and "to several gentlemen in different parts of the world who have been so good as to respond to my inquiries as to their personal observation of \'arious classes of phenomena x U PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION coimected with marriage among savage tribes. svi CONTENTS I CHAPTER I mi ouoi H or marriack Definition of nurriagc A* a loci&l Institution, p. Little details which by themselves would hardly attract our attention may, when viewed in the light of the comparative method, become conclusive e\'idcnce or, in other cases, lead to valuable suggestions, some of which may be within ' Tylor, ' On « Method of investigating the Development of Institutions,' In Jotir. We should refrain from trying to find any motives for the practice of polygyny, the proliibition of incest, the various marriage rites, and so forth. • I 10 THE HISTORY OF HUMAN MARRIAGE n aspect of social conduct ? Rivers regards a custom as a survival " ii its nature cannot be explained by its present utility but only becomes intelligible through its past history." ' I presume that utility here nwans supposed utility, since a custom can be quite intclligibk through existing conditions if it is merely regarded as useful by those who practise it. Instances of mistaken classification might no doubt be quoted from my own writings (and will probably be found in the present work also) ; but as it is more agreeable to find fault with others than with one's self, I shall choose an example from the investigations of an esteemed colleague. Hartland shows that in various countries bathing is practised as a method of obtaining children, and he traces this practice to an ancient behef " that pregnancy was caused otherwise than by sexual intercourse." In support of this view he quotes, besides many other facts, a statement of mine referring to a tribe in Southern Morocco.' It is there the custom for a married woman who is anxious to know if she will be blessed with a child or not to go to the sea-shore on Midsummer Day, and on the two following days as well, and let seven waves go over her body ; then she knows that if she does not get a child coon she w Ul liavc none at all. Hence one of the chief defects of their method may be considerably reduced by the strenuous efforts of field-workers to collect not only external facts but to enter into the thoughts and feelings of the people they inv'esti- gate, as also by monographs of the kind already mentioned. The friend is said ' to eat new things ' — Kudia ujobvu."* In New Caledonia, " lorsqu'un mari ne peut oti ne veut d^florcr sa fenune, tl se trouve, en payant, certains individus qui s'un acquittent k £a place.

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION I NEED scarcely say how fully I appreciate the honour of being introduced to English readers by Mr. I am also greatly obliged for his kindness in reading the proofs, and in giving me the benefit of his advice with regard to various peirts of the subject. But I purpose, after my return to Europe, to issue an Appendix, in which the book will be brought more up to date and some criticism will be replied to. 13 so, — The complaint that the comparative method di^taches the cultural phenomenon from the organic whole of which it forms a part and thereby easily represents it in a wrong light, pp. — The study of a cultural phenomenon as it is distributed among different races and the study of it which is restricted to a particular ethnic group complement each other, p. — The homogeneous elements ol the human mind underrated and the homogeneity of the group-mind overrated by the school of Durkheim, pp. — An error of method prevalent among the evolutionary school, p. — The only condition on which the universal prevalence of a social phenomenon in the past may be assumed, p. and find it truly alarming to hear from one who may almost be regarded as the leader of a new school in sociology in this country that social phenomena should be referred to social antecedents before any attempt is made to examine the psychological processes under ITng them. • Se« my Marriage Crr«ntcm4S in Morocco; Certmaniet and Btl Uft connecud a-il* Asricv Uu Tt. the comparative treatment, which in the first place bears out general resemblances, often helps the specialist to explain facts which he could hardly understand in full if his know- ledge were restricted to a limited area.

It is difficult for me to acknowledge sufficiently my obligations to Mr. It is strange that this extraordinary faith in sociological explanations should be coupled with an equally extreme dis- trust in our capacity of learning the motives by which social conduct is determined. But the mental facts that kad to the customs of peoples are not ol a very subtle ciiaractcr. one meets only with un- certainty and vagueness unless, as is most frequently the case, the people are wholly satisfied with the position that they are acting as their fathers have done before them."* So far as my own experience goes, this is tnie of some cases but not of others, in which most valuable information has been obtained from 4hc natives themselves.* Their ex- planations are not always alike, and the reason for this is probably that the real origin of the rite has been partly or wholly forgotten and a new interpretation substituted for the idea from which it rose. ec Uu H Datet of the Solar Year, and (** Wtai Mer in Mvrouo (P/itrsigl af Finska Vtlenshaps- Sociele Utu Forlia Hdlinsar. It is easy to criticise the comparative method in the point we are now con- sidering, but it is impossible for any modem student of human civilisation to ignore its results. * Noel, ' Ilede Maila^ascar.'in BMttin d* la Soci M i* G4ograpkie, ser, ii.

Objections raised by critics have teen carefully considered. — The temporary exchange ol wives, pp, 130-134, — Proioiacuous intercourse inaulgeo ID at certain feasts, p. CONTENTS xlx CHAPTER VII CKt Ticrew or the hvpothiu* or Mtoutscutir : iiu mjuaificatokv KVSIBM or Rit JLTio KSHir Dncriptirc "hiw I" c Js Mificatory ayklcnu o( rdationxhlp." pp. 149-157, — The cl Auificaloty letnu tised as tenni of addrs M. But," he adds, " while thb general mental similarity may, I believe, be taken as established, we must always be on our guard against tracing to it a multitude of particular resemblances which may be and often are due to simple diffusion, since nothing is more certain than that the various races of men have borrowed from each other many of their arts and crafts, their ideas, customs, and institutions." * I quote these state- ments in reply to the charge made in a Presidential Address to the Anthropological Section of the British Association a few years ago, that where similarities are found in different ' Tylor. It is with questions of this sort that the evolu- tionary school of sociologists have pre-eminently occupied ' Gracbaer, op. And their compamtiw method has gieatly helped them in their lastc. In this way the customs and institutions of savages have thrown rays of light on the early history of civilised nations. " The proper task of the sociologist is the study of the correlation of social phenomena with other social phenomena, and the reference of the facts of social life to social antecedents, and only when this has been done, or at any rate when this process has made far greater advances than at present, will it be profitable to endeavour to explain the course of social life by psychological processes." ^ At present sociology and social psychology should, so far as possible, be treated as if they were independent disciphnes, because each of them is liable to make assumptions, belonging to the other sde Dce, which are readily mistaken for explanations.

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