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It was suggested that bacteria thrive in the Mariana Trench, which with a depth of up to 11 kilometres is the deepest known part of the oceans.
In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and are also used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem.The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology.There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water.These multicellular structures are often only seen in certain conditions.For example, when starved of amino acids, Myxobacteria detect surrounding cells in a process known as quorum sensing, migrate towards each other, and aggregate to form fruiting bodies up to 500 micrometres long and containing approximately 100,000 bacterial cells.Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica Chlamydiae Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fibrobacteres Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Tenericutes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia ; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.
Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals.
Bacterial cells are about one-tenth the size of eukaryotic cells and are typically 0.5–5.0 micrometres in length.
However, a few species are visible to the unaided eye—for example, Thiomargarita namibiensis is up to half a millimetre long Some bacteria, called vibrio, are shaped like slightly curved rods or comma-shaped; others can be spiral-shaped, called spirilla, or tightly coiled, called spirochaetes.
This involved the engulfment by proto-eukaryotic cells of alphaproteobacterial symbionts to form either mitochondria or hydrogenosomes, which are still found in all known Eukarya (sometimes in highly reduced form, e.g. Later, some eukaryotes that already contained mitochondria also engulfed cyanobacteria-like organisms, leading to the formation of chloroplasts in algae and plants.
Bacteria display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes, called morphologies.
A small number of other unusual shapes have been described, such as star-shaped bacteria.